|SPOT THE DIAGNOSIS
|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 68-69
Brownish black nodule over foot − a subtle presentation of a grave disorder
Seema Manjunath, Anuradha Bishnoi, Muthu Sendhil Kumaran
Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
|Date of Submission||12-Jul-2019|
|Date of Decision||21-Sep-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||02-Nov-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||07-Apr-2021|
Dr. Muthu Sendhil Kumaran
Additional Professor, Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, PGIMER Chandigarh 160012
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Keywords: Dermoscopy, histopathology, melanoma
|How to cite this article:|
Manjunath S, Bishnoi A, Kumaran MS. Brownish black nodule over foot − a subtle presentation of a grave disorder. Pigment Int 2021;8:68-9
A 58-year-old male presented with 1-year history of blackish asymptomatic nodule on right sole, which initially started as pinhead-sized papule and progressed to the present size. There was no previous history of bleeding or oozing from lesion. Patient denied history of trauma or a prior melanocytic nevus. Clinical examination revealed well-defined, irregular, brownish black, infiltrated noduloplaque measuring 6 × 7 cm over right heel [Figure 1]. There was no lymphadenopathy. Dermoscopy of lesion revealed multiple colors (dark brown, blue, gray, and black), irregular brown and black dots, and globules [Figure 2].
|Figure 1 Brownish black pigmented infiltrated noduloplaque with irregular border over right heel|
Click here to view
|Figure 2 Dermoscopy showing multiple colors (ranging from tan, dark brown, blue, gray, and black), irregular blotches, irregular brown dots and globules, and black colored areas|
Click here to view
What is the diagnosis?
Melanoma is a malignant tumor arising from melanocytes. It is classified into four types based on histopathology, namely, superficial spreading type, acral lentiginous type, nodular type, and lentigo maligna melanoma. Melanoma in Indians is rare compared to Caucasians with age-specific incidence less than 0.5 per 1,000,000. Nodular melanomas are rapidly proliferating tumors presenting in older individuals as firm papules or nodules with frequent ulceration. Those arising from nail unit or sole often present late, contributing to diagnostic delay and hence poor outcome. Dermoscopy of pigmented nodular melanoma visualizes a symmetrical pattern of pigmentation with blue, black, tan, and milky red or pink areas, multiple blue-gray dots, blue white veil, scar-like depigmentation, irregularly distributed and sized brown dots and globules, atypical broadened network, large diameter vessels, and predominant peripheral vessels. Histopathology shows dermal mass of dysplastic tumor cells which are round and epithelioid in morphology with hyperchromatic nuclei invading into epidermis [Figure 3]. Considering the size and location, our patient was referred to surgery for further management. Even though dermoscopy does not obviate the need for biopsy, it is a powerful tool helping to diagnose melanoma early even before specific histopathological findings develop and helps in ruling out other pigmented lesions such as benign melanocytic nevi and Kaposi sarcoma.
|Figure 3 Epidermis shows parakeratosis and a tumor is seen arising from the basal layer and extending into the dermis. Individual tumor cells are moderately to markedly pleomorphic and have round nuclei with coarse chromatin and prominent eosinophilic large nucleoli. Melanin pigment is seen in some of the tumor cells (hematoxylin and eosin 100×)|
Click here to view
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Bishop JN, Bataille V, Gavin A, Lens M, Marsden J, Mathews T, Wheelhouse C. The prevention, diagnosis, referral and management of melanoma of the skin: concise guidelines. Clin Med (Lond) 2007;7:283-90.
Bristow IR, de Berker DA, Acland KM, Turner RJ, Bowling J. Clinical guidelines for the recognition of melanoma of the foot and nail unit. J Foot Ankle Res 2010;3:25.
Menzies SW, Moloney FJ, Byth K et al.
Dermoscopic evaluation of nodular melanoma. JAMA Dermatol 2013;149:699-709.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]